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Grainger & Allison’s Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging 2020 book

Grainger & Allison’s Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging

Details Of The Book

Grainger & Allison’s Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging

edition: 7th Edition 
Authors: , , ,   
serie:  
ISBN : 0702075248, 9780702075612 
publisher: Elsevier 
publish year: 2020 
pages: 2218 
language: English 
ebook format : PDF (It will be converted to PDF, EPUB OR AZW3 if requested by the user) 
file size: 294 MB 

price : $13.5 18 With 25% OFF



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Abstract Of The Book



Table Of Contents

Cover......Page 1
Grainger & Allison’s Diagnostic Radiology......Page 3
Copyright Page......Page 4
Table Of Contents......Page 5
Preface......Page 8
List of Section Editors......Page 9
List of Contributors......Page 10
Dedication......Page 19
Portable Chest Radiography......Page 20
From Single-Slice to Multidetector Computed Tomography......Page 21
High-Resolution Computed Tomography......Page 22
Intravenous Contrast Medium Enhancement and Timing of Computed Tomography Acquisition......Page 23
Additional Postprocessing Techniques......Page 25
Computed Tomography Dose Considerations......Page 26
Ultrasound......Page 28
Endoscopic and Endobronchial Ultrasound......Page 29
Ventilation–Perfusion Scintigraphy......Page 30
Positron Emission Tomography......Page 32
Further Reading......Page 33
The Lungs......Page 34
The Central Airways......Page 35
The Lungs Beyond the Hila......Page 37
The Hila......Page 42
Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 44
Junction Lines......Page 48
Right Mediastinum Above the Azygos Vein......Page 49
Left Cardiac Border Below the Aortic Arch......Page 51
The Diaphragm......Page 53
Further Reading......Page 54
Soft-Tissue Calcification......Page 55
Ribs......Page 56
Soft-Tissue Tumours......Page 57
Free pleural fluid.......Page 60
Loculated (encysted, encapsulated) pleural fluid.......Page 62
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 63
Positron-Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography......Page 64
Exudates and Transudates......Page 65
Chylothorax......Page 66
Typical Signs.......Page 67
Computed Tomography......Page 68
Adhesions......Page 69
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 70
Diffuse Pleural Disease......Page 71
Pleural Fibroma......Page 72
Tumour-Like Conditions of the Pleura......Page 74
Pleural Aspiration......Page 75
Complications of Image-Guided Pleural Intervention......Page 76
Diaphragm......Page 77
Computed Tomography......Page 78
Diaphragmatic Hernias......Page 79
Diaphragmatic Trauma......Page 80
Neoplasms of the Diaphragm......Page 82
Recent Journal Articles......Page 83
Computed Tomography......Page 84
Ultrasound......Page 85
Thyroid Masses......Page 86
Thymomas......Page 87
Thymic Carcinoma......Page 91
Lymphofollicular Thymic Hyperplasia and Rebound Thymic Hyperplasia......Page 92
Teratomas......Page 93
Non-Seminomatous Germ-Cell Tumours......Page 94
Malignant Lymphoma and Leukaemia......Page 95
Low-Attenuation Nodes......Page 96
Lymph Node Enlargement......Page 97
Foregut Duplication Cysts......Page 99
Bronchogenic Cysts......Page 100
Sympathetic Ganglion Tumours......Page 102
Extramedullary Haematopoiesis......Page 105
Lymphangiomas (Cystic Hygromas)......Page 106
Fat-Containing Hernias......Page 107
Fibrosing Mediastinitis......Page 108
Pneumomediastinum......Page 109
Pericardium......Page 112
Pericardial Effusion......Page 113
Pericarditis......Page 115
Constrictive Pericarditis......Page 116
Pericardial Neoplasms......Page 117
Further Reading......Page 119
Clinical Utility and Limitations of Chest Radiography and Computed Tomography......Page 121
Patterns of Pulmonary Infection......Page 122
Complications of Pneumonia......Page 123
Integrating Clinical and Imaging Findings......Page 124
Moraxella catarrhalis.......Page 125
Coxiella burnetii (Rickettsial Pneumonia).......Page 126
Escherichia coli.......Page 127
Influenza A.......Page 128
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).......Page 129
Cytomegalovirus (CMV).......Page 130
Middle East respiratory syndrome.......Page 131
Changing Spectrum of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections: 40 Years Later......Page 132
Pulmonary Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTMB)......Page 133
Aspergillus Infection......Page 134
Pneumocystis jiroveci......Page 135
Histoplasmosis......Page 136
Strongyloidiasis......Page 137
Echinococcosis (Hydatid Disease)......Page 138
Schistosomiasis......Page 140
Further Reading......Page 141
Primary Malignant Neoplasms......Page 143
Benign Neoplasms......Page 146
Tracheobronchial Amyloidosis......Page 148
Sarcoidosis......Page 149
Tracheobronchomalacia......Page 150
Tracheobronchial Fistula and Dehiscence......Page 152
Bronchiectasis......Page 153
Radiographic Findings......Page 155
Computed Tomographic Findings......Page 156
Cystic Fibrosis......Page 158
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis......Page 160
Radiological Findings......Page 161
Computed Tomography Assessment of Air Trapping......Page 163
Pathological Findings......Page 164
Visually Defined Computed Tomography Pattern of Emphysema......Page 165
Associated Features......Page 167
Quantitative Computed Tomography Image Analysis......Page 168
Quantitative Analysis of Emphysema Extent......Page 173
Quantitative Computed Tomography Analysis of Gas Trapping......Page 174
Quantitative Analysis of Airway Dimensions......Page 175
Computed Tomography Findings......Page 176
Quantitative Computed Tomography Imaging of Airways in Asthma......Page 177
Further Reading......Page 179
Radiographic Considerations......Page 180
Indirect Signs of Volume Loss......Page 181
Ancillary Features of Lobar Collapse......Page 182
Utility......Page 183
Other Imaging Techniques in Lobar Collapse......Page 186
Left Upper Lobe Collapse......Page 187
Right Middle Lobe Collapse......Page 188
Right and Left Lower Lobe Collapse......Page 189
Whole Lung Collapse......Page 193
Combinations of Lobar Collapse......Page 194
Further Reading......Page 195
Treatment-Predictive Biomarkers......Page 196
Re-biopsy......Page 197
Chest Radiographic Screening......Page 198
Radiation Dose Considerations......Page 199
The Future of Screening......Page 200
Management of Small Pulmonary Nodules......Page 201
Nodule Density......Page 202
Subsolid Nodules......Page 203
Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography......Page 204
Lung Cancer Staging—the 8Th Edition of the TNM Staging System......Page 206
Small Cell Lung Cancer......Page 207
The Current Standards of Computer Tomography Technology......Page 208
Calcification......Page 210
Collapse/Consolidation in Association With Central Tumours......Page 211
Chest Wall Invasion......Page 213
Pleural Involvement......Page 215
Pulmonary Sarcoma and Other Primary Malignant Neoplasms......Page 216
Other Benign Pulmonary Neoplasms......Page 217
Follicular Bronchiolitis......Page 218
Other Findings in Pulmonary Lymphoma......Page 219
Metastases......Page 220
Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis......Page 221
Further Reading......Page 222
Nodular Pattern......Page 223
Cystic Pattern......Page 224
Usual Interstitial Pneumonia/Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis......Page 225
Respiratory Bronchiolitis–Interstitial Lung Disease and Desquamative Interstitial Pneumonia......Page 228
Lymphoid Interstitial Pneumonia......Page 230
Idiopathic Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis......Page 231
High-Resolution Computed Tomography Features......Page 232
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis......Page 233
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis......Page 234
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis......Page 235
Rheumatoid Disease......Page 236
Sjögren Syndrome......Page 237
Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)......Page 238
Classical HRCT Findings......Page 239
Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Formerly Churg–Strauss Syndrome)......Page 240
Diffuse Alveolar Damage......Page 241
Eosinophilic Pneumonia......Page 242
The International Labour Office Classification......Page 243
Asbestos-Related Disease......Page 244
Asbestosis......Page 245
Further Reading......Page 246
Anatomical Considerations......Page 248
Pulmonary Oedema......Page 249
Interstitial Oedema......Page 251
Alveolar Oedema......Page 253
Diffuse Pulmonary Haemorrhage......Page 254
Antibasement Membrane Antibody Disease (Goodpasture’s Syndrome)......Page 255
Organising Pneumonia......Page 256
Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia......Page 260
Alveolar Microlithiasis......Page 261
Further Reading......Page 262
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance......Page 263
Cardiac Axis Imaging Planes......Page 264
Normal Anatomy on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images......Page 266
Computed Tomography Imaging Techniques......Page 267
Coronary Arteries by Computed Tomography......Page 269
Valves......Page 274
Pulmonary Veins......Page 277
Other Structures......Page 278
Echocardiography......Page 279
Valves......Page 283
Further Reading......Page 285
Clinical Presentation......Page 287
Step 1—Atrial Situs......Page 288
Step 3—Ventriculo-Arterial Connection......Page 289
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 290
The Pulmonary Vasculature......Page 291
Atrial Septal Defects......Page 294
Key imaging goals......Page 296
Key imaging goals......Page 297
Abnormalities of the Aortic Arch and Vascular Rings......Page 298
Aortic Valve Disease......Page 299
Anomalous Coronary Arteries......Page 301
Tetralogy of Fallot......Page 302
Transposition of the Great Arteries......Page 303
Key imaging goals......Page 304
Key imaging goals......Page 306
Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection/Drainage......Page 307
Key imaging goals following stage 3: post-total cavopulmonary connection (post-TCPC)......Page 309
Hybrid Catheter/Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Laboratory......Page 310
Conclusion......Page 311
Further Reading......Page 312
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 313
Hypertrophic Pattern......Page 314
Dilated Phenotype......Page 317
Restrictive Phenotype......Page 323
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy......Page 327
Unclassified Cardiomyopathy......Page 328
Myocarditis......Page 330
Mitral Valve Disease......Page 332
Chordal Rupture......Page 333
Functional Mitral Regurgitation......Page 334
Mitral Stenosis......Page 335
Tricuspid Valve Disease......Page 336
Aortic Stenosis......Page 337
Aortic Regurgitation......Page 339
New Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques......Page 340
Prosthetic Cardiac Valves......Page 341
Infective Endocarditis......Page 344
Tumours of the Heart......Page 346
Cardiac Myxoma......Page 348
Rhabdomyomas......Page 352
Papillary Fibroelastoma......Page 353
Sarcomas......Page 354
Rhabdomyosarcoma.......Page 355
Anatomy......Page 356
Pericardial Effusion......Page 358
Pericardial Inflammation......Page 360
Constrictive Pericarditis......Page 362
Pericardial Masses......Page 364
Further Reading......Page 365
Pulmonary Arteries......Page 366
Pulmonary Circulation Physiology......Page 367
Interstitial Oedema (Grade 2)......Page 368
Alveolar Oedema (Grade 3)......Page 369
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension......Page 370
Vascular Signs......Page 374
Cardiac Signs......Page 375
Parenchymal Signs......Page 376
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations......Page 378
Clinical (Pre-Test) Probability Estimate and D-Dimer Testing......Page 380
Compression Ultrasound of the Legs......Page 381
Ventilation–Perfusion Scintigraphy......Page 382
Computed tomography pulmonary angiography protocol.......Page 383
Computed tomography perfusion.......Page 384
Chronic Pulmonary Thromboembolism......Page 387
Acknowledgements......Page 388
Further Reading......Page 389
Pathophysiology of Ischaemic Heart Disease......Page 390
Coronary Artery Imaging......Page 392
Functional Imaging......Page 397
Stress Imaging......Page 401
Myocardial Infarct Imaging......Page 405
Myocardial Viability Imaging......Page 411
Imaging of Complications Related to Ischaemic Heart Disease......Page 415
Differential Diagnosis in Ischaemic Heart Disease......Page 416
Further Reading......Page 417
Chest X-Ray and Echocardiography......Page 419
Acute Diseases......Page 420
Chronic Diseases......Page 421
Magnetic resonance imaging.......Page 422
Computed tomography.......Page 424
Intramural Haematoma......Page 426
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 427
Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer......Page 428
Imaging......Page 430
Aortic Aneurysms......Page 432
Atherosclerotic Aortic Aneurysms......Page 433
Computed tomography.......Page 434
Mycotic Aneurysms......Page 435
Aortic Sinus Aneurysms......Page 438
Visceral Malperfusion......Page 439
Preoperative or Preinterventional Evaluation......Page 441
Traumatic Aortic Injury......Page 442
Endovascular treatment of type B dissection.......Page 443
Midaortic Syndrome......Page 444
Granulomatous vasculitis (Takayasu disease).......Page 445
Prognosis and treatment.......Page 446
Chronic Aortic Occlusive Disease......Page 447
Vascular Rings......Page 448
Double Aortic Arch......Page 450
Right aortic arch with mirror-image branching and retro-oesophageal ligamentum arteriosum.......Page 451
Imaging......Page 452
Chest X-Ray......Page 453
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 454
Management......Page 455
Aortic Atresia......Page 456
Further Reading......Page 458
Pneumoperitoneum......Page 459
Gas in Bowel Wall......Page 461
Gas in Other Organs......Page 462
Distinction Between Small- and Large-Bowel Dilatation......Page 463
Small-Bowel Dilatation......Page 464
Pseudo-Obstruction......Page 467
Small-Bowel Ischaemia......Page 468
Pseudomembranous Colitis......Page 470
Ultrasound in Appendicitis......Page 471
Computed Tomography in Appendicitis......Page 472
Imaging the Abdomen With Computed Tomography: Radiation Issues......Page 473
Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms......Page 474
Role of MRI in the Acute Abdomen......Page 475
Radiation Dose Reduction in Clinical Practice......Page 476
Further Reading......Page 477
Plain Radiography......Page 478
Fluoroscopy......Page 479
Computed Tomography......Page 480
Oesophageal Cancer......Page 481
Computed Tomography for Oesophageal Cancer......Page 482
Endoscopic Ultrasound for Oesophageal Cancer......Page 484
Positron-Emission Tomography–Computed Tomography for Oesophageal Cancer......Page 485
Benign Lesions......Page 486
Hiatus Hernia......Page 488
Columnar-lined oesophagus.......Page 489
Motility Disorders......Page 490
Oesophageal Varices......Page 491
Trauma......Page 492
Further Reading......Page 493
Fluoroscopy......Page 494
Multidetector Computed Tomography......Page 496
Gastric Ulcer......Page 498
Atrophic Gastritis......Page 501
Ménétrier Disease......Page 502
Corrosive Ingestion......Page 503
Mucosal Polyps......Page 504
Mesenchymal Tumours......Page 505
Early Gastric Cancer......Page 507
Staging of Gastric Cancer......Page 508
Gastric Lymphoma......Page 510
Hiatus Hernia......Page 511
Gastric Volvulus......Page 512
Gastric Pneumatosis......Page 513
Gastric Distention......Page 514
Gastroparesis......Page 515
Complications of Bariatric Surgery......Page 517
Non-Bariatric Gastric Surgeries......Page 518
Complications of Non-Bariatric Gastric Surgery......Page 520
Further Reading......Page 521
Peptic Ulceration......Page 523
Diverticula......Page 524
Secondary Involvement......Page 525
Intramural Haematoma......Page 526
Radiological Investigation......Page 527
Computed Tomography......Page 528
Nuclear Medicine Studies......Page 529
Radiological Appearances......Page 530
Neoplasms......Page 533
Carcinoid Tumour......Page 534
Adenocarcinoma......Page 535
Benign Neoplasms......Page 536
Tuberculosis......Page 538
Whipple Disease......Page 539
Mechanical Small-Bowel Obstruction......Page 540
Occult Gastrointestinal Bleeding......Page 542
Jejunal Diverticula......Page 543
Ileal Diverticula......Page 544
Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis......Page 545
Peritoneal Spaces......Page 546
The Mesenteries......Page 547
The Omentum......Page 548
Peritonitis......Page 549
Tuberculosis Peritonitis......Page 550
Mesenteric Lymphadenitis......Page 551
Non-Inflammatory Mesenteric Oedema......Page 552
Epiploic Appendagitis......Page 553
Direct Invasion and Along Mesenteric– Ligamentous Attachments......Page 554
Intraperitoneal Seeding and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis......Page 555
Cytoreductive Surgery......Page 557
Mesentery......Page 559
Further Reading......Page 562
Anatomy......Page 564
Radiological Investigation......Page 565
Polyps......Page 567
Familial adenomatous polyposis.......Page 569
Computed tomography colonography.......Page 570
Colorectal Cancer......Page 571
Colon Cancer......Page 572
Rectal Cancer......Page 574
Anal Cancer......Page 575
Appendix Tumours......Page 576
Secondary Cancers......Page 577
Diverticulitis......Page 578
Epiploic Appendagitis......Page 582
Differential Features......Page 583
Ischaemic Colitis......Page 584
Infectious Colitis......Page 585
Parasitic Colitis......Page 586
Acute Fulminant Colitis......Page 587
Large-Bowel Strictures......Page 588
Volvulus......Page 589
Endometriosis......Page 590
Functional Disorders of the Anorectum......Page 591
Anal Fistula......Page 592
Further Reading......Page 593
Gallbladder Anatomical Variants......Page 594
Ultrasound......Page 595
Intraoperative Cholangiography......Page 596
Low Phospholipid-Associated Cholelithiasis......Page 597
Gangrenous Cholecystitis......Page 598
Adenomyomatous Hyperplasia......Page 599
Gallbladder Polyps......Page 600
Gallbladder Carcinoma......Page 601
Gallbladder Metastases and Lymphoma......Page 602
Role of Radiology in Investigation of Jaundice......Page 603
Cholangiography......Page 606
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis......Page 607
IgG4-Related Disease......Page 608
Mirizzi Syndrome......Page 609
Fascioliasis......Page 610
Cholangiocarcinoma......Page 611
Haemobilia......Page 613
Hilar Strictures—Special Considerations......Page 614
Further Reading......Page 615
Vascular Anatomy Variation (Fig. 23.5)......Page 617
Technique (Fig. 23.9)......Page 618
Intravenous Contrast Agents (Fig. 23.12)......Page 622
Hepatic Steatosis......Page 625
Cirrhosis......Page 626
Haemochromatosis and Iron Overload......Page 627
Malignant Diffuse Disease......Page 628
Calcification......Page 629
Pneumobilia......Page 630
Cysts......Page 631
Haemangioma......Page 632
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia......Page 635
Hepatic Adenoma......Page 637
Focal Fat......Page 638
Biliary Hamartomas (Fig. 23.44)......Page 642
Hepatocellular Carcinoma......Page 643
Fibrolamellar Carcinoma (Fig. 23.53)......Page 648
Metastases......Page 652
Budd–Chiari Syndrome......Page 655
Portal Venous Hypertension......Page 656
Portal Vein Thrombosis......Page 657
Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts......Page 659
Hepatic Trauma......Page 660
Living Donor Assessment......Page 661
Devices......Page 662
Practical Procedural Issues......Page 663
Anatomy......Page 664
Infarction (Figs 23.78 and 23.79)......Page 665
Cysts (Fig. 23.80)......Page 669
Hamartomas and Lymphangiomas (Fig. 23.82)......Page 670
Lymphoma (Fig. 23.84)......Page 671
Portal Hypertension/Splenic Vein Thrombosis......Page 672
Further Reading......Page 674
Annular Pancreas......Page 675
Acute Pancreatitis......Page 676
Imaging in Acute Pancreatitis......Page 680
Interstitial Oedematous Pancreatitis......Page 681
Necrotising Pancreatitis......Page 682
Complications of Acute Pancreatitis......Page 684
Chronic Pancreatitis......Page 686
Paraduodenal Pancreatitis......Page 688
Autoimmune Pancreatitis......Page 690
Ductal Adenocarcinoma......Page 694
Imaging Investigations......Page 695
Imaging Appearances......Page 696
Local Staging......Page 697
Follow-Up......Page 699
Functioning Tumours......Page 700
Cystic Masses......Page 703
What to Do With Small Incidental Cystic Lesions?......Page 709
Osler–Weber–Rendu Disease......Page 710
Biopsy of Solid Pancreatic Lesions and Fine-Needle Aspiration of Cystic Pancreatic Lesions......Page 713
Drainage of Pancreatic/Peripancreatic Fluid Collections......Page 714
Further Reading......Page 716
Imaging of Renal and Ureteric Stones......Page 718
Risk Stratification of Patients With Haematuria for Triage to Computed Tomography......Page 719
Imaging Features of Urothelial Tumours on Computed Tomography......Page 720
Computed Tomography......Page 724
Ultrasound......Page 726
Radiography......Page 727
Magnetic Resonance Urography......Page 728
Iodinated Contrast Agents......Page 729
Imaging of Acute Pyelonephritis......Page 730
Computed tomography.......Page 731
Magnetic resonance imaging.......Page 732
Renal scintigraphy.......Page 733
Imaging of Emphysematous Pyelonephritis......Page 734
Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis......Page 735
Imaging of Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis......Page 737
Pyonephrosis......Page 738
Imaging of Pyonephrosis......Page 739
Imaging of Renal Tuberculosis......Page 740
Acute Bacterial Prostatitis and Prostatic Abscess......Page 741
Imaging of acute prostatitis and prostatic abscess.......Page 742
Imaging of chronic prostatitis.......Page 745
Further Reading......Page 746
Normal Urinary Tract Anatomy......Page 747
Renal......Page 751
Ureter and Pelvis......Page 753
Bladder and Urethra......Page 758
Retrograde Urography......Page 760
Retrograde Urethrography and Voiding Cystourethrogram......Page 761
Ultrasound......Page 762
Nuclear Medicine......Page 763
Computed Tomography......Page 765
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 767
Conventional Radiography......Page 769
Further Reading......Page 770
Duplicated Collecting System (Ureteral Duplication)......Page 772
Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease......Page 773
Cysts......Page 774
Bosniak Renal Cyst Classification System......Page 775
Renal Cysts Associated With von Hippel–Lindau Syndrome (vHL)......Page 779
Acquired Cystic Disease of the Kidney......Page 781
Dual-Energy Computed Tomography......Page 784
Nephrocalcinosis......Page 785
Further Reading......Page 786
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 787
Complicated Cysts......Page 788
Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)......Page 789
Renal Abscesses......Page 790
Intrarenal Vascular Masses......Page 791
Adenoma and Oncocytoma......Page 792
Renal cell carcinoma.......Page 793
Staging of renal cancer.......Page 795
Sarcoma.......Page 796
Squamous cell carcinoma.......Page 797
Further Reading......Page 798
Ultrasound......Page 799
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 800
Catheter-Based Angiography and Fluoroscopy......Page 801
Renal Artery Stenosis......Page 802
Acute Tubular Necrosis......Page 803
Chronic Rejection......Page 804
Lymphocele......Page 805
Ureteric Strictures......Page 806
Cancer and Transplant......Page 807
Renal Transplant Biopsy......Page 808
Radiological Evaluation of Potential Donor Kidneys......Page 809
Further Reading......Page 810
Risk Factors......Page 811
Management......Page 812
Optimisation of Computed Tomography Urography Technique......Page 813
Imaging Findings in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma......Page 814
Magnetic Resonance Urography......Page 815
Conclusions and Summary......Page 816
Clinical Detection......Page 818
Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Urographic Appearance of Bladder Cancers......Page 819
Sensitivity and Specificity of Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Urography in Detecting Bladder Cancers......Page 820
Imaging for Local Staging of Bladder Cancer......Page 823
Upper Tract Evaluation......Page 825
Treatment and Follow-Up......Page 831
Use of Imaging to Identify Tumour Response to Chemotherapy......Page 832
Other Urinary Tract Malignancies......Page 833
Benign Bladder Lesions......Page 834
Recent Journal Articles......Page 838
Anatomy......Page 840
Risk Stratification......Page 841
Prostate Imaging—Reporting and Data System......Page 843
Transition Zone......Page 844
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging......Page 845
Nodal Staging......Page 848
Non-Nodal Metastases......Page 850
Local Disease Stage......Page 851
Post-Treatment Evaluation......Page 852
Prostate Biopsy......Page 853
Further Reading......Page 856
Scrotal Masses......Page 857
Malignant Testicular Pathology......Page 858
Computed Tomography......Page 859
Non-Malignant Focal Testicular Lesions......Page 860
Extratesticular Scrotal Lesions......Page 861
Acute Epididymitis......Page 862
Cryptorchidism......Page 864
Male Infertility......Page 865
Evaluation of the Soft Tissues of the Penis......Page 867
Further Reading......Page 868
Computed Tomography......Page 869
Detection, Diagnosis and Staging......Page 871
Ultrasound......Page 872
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 873
Recommended Imaging Approach......Page 874
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 875
Positron-Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography......Page 876
Recommended Imaging Approach......Page 877
Ovarian Carcinoma......Page 878
Ultrasound......Page 879
Computed Tomography......Page 880
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 881
Conclusion......Page 882
Further Reading......Page 884
Congenital Anomalies of the Female Genital Tract......Page 886
Class II: Unicornuate Uterus......Page 888
Class IV: Bicornuate Uterus......Page 889
Vaginal Anomalies......Page 890
Imaging of Ambiguous Genitalia......Page 891
Fibroids......Page 892
Endometrial Hyperplasia......Page 893
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 897
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease......Page 898
Computed Tomography......Page 901
Ovarian Vein Thrombosis......Page 902
Functional Ovarian Cysts......Page 904
Epithelial Tumours......Page 905
Stromal Cell Tumours......Page 906
Urethral Bulking Agents......Page 909
Mid-Urethral Slings......Page 911
Ectopic Pregnancy......Page 913
Abnormal Placental Positions: Placenta Previa and Low-lying Placenta......Page 914
Placenta Accreta, Percreta and Increta......Page 915
Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)......Page 916
Further Reading......Page 918
Renal Trauma......Page 919
Imaging Technique for Renal Injury......Page 920
Computed Tomography Findings of Grade II Renal Injury......Page 921
Computed Tomography Findings of Grade IV Renal Injury......Page 923
Active Bleeding......Page 925
Traumatic Renal Pseudoaneurysm......Page 926
Ureteral Injury......Page 927
Bladder Injury......Page 928
Computed Tomography Findings......Page 929
Imaging Findings of Urethral Injury......Page 930
Imaging Technique and Findings......Page 931
Imaging Technique and Imaging Findings......Page 932
Further Reading......Page 933
Physiology......Page 934
Incidentally Detected Adrenal Mass......Page 935
Lesion Size and Contour......Page 937
Contrast Enhancement and Contrast Washout Characteristics......Page 938
Histogram Analysis Method......Page 939
Positron-Emission Tomography......Page 940
Adrenal Scintigraphy......Page 945
Myelolipoma......Page 946
Imaging Functional Disorders of the Adrenal Gland......Page 948
Cushing’s Syndrome......Page 949
Adrenal carcinoma.......Page 950
ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome.......Page 953
Primary Hyperaldosteronism (Conn’s Syndrome)......Page 954
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.......Page 955
Phaeochromocytomas......Page 956
Neuroblastoma and Ganglioneuroblastoma......Page 958
Primary Adrenal Hypofunction......Page 959
Secondary Adrenal Hypofunction......Page 960
Further Reading......Page 962
Conventional Radiography......Page 963
Ultrasound......Page 964
Elastography......Page 965
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 966
Metal Artefact Reduction......Page 967
Nuclear Medicine......Page 968
Arthrography......Page 969
Further Reading......Page 970
The Shoulder......Page 971
Rotator Cuff Disease......Page 972
Glenohumeral Joint Instability......Page 974
The Acromioclavicular Joint......Page 976
Tendons......Page 978
Ligaments......Page 980
Hand and Wrist......Page 981
Wrist Ligaments......Page 982
Triangular Fibrocartilage......Page 984
Wrist Tendons......Page 985
Ulnar Collateral Ligament of the Thumb......Page 986
Labrum and Cartilage......Page 988
Muscle and Tendon......Page 989
Bursae......Page 990
The Knee......Page 991
Anterior Cruciate Ligament......Page 992
Medial Collateral Ligament......Page 994
Lateral Collateral Ligament Complex and Posterolateral Corner......Page 995
The Extensor Mechanism and Patellofemoral Joint......Page 996
Bursae......Page 997
Tendons......Page 998
Tarsal Coalition......Page 1000
Other Soft-Tissue Abnormalities......Page 1001
Further Reading......Page 1002
Periosteal Reaction......Page 1003
Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnosis and Staging......Page 1004
Osteochondroma......Page 1008
Radiological Features......Page 1009
Enchondromatosis with haemangiomas (Maffucci syndrome).......Page 1010
Chondroblastoma......Page 1012
Radiological Features......Page 1015
Radiological Features......Page 1016
Osteoblastoma......Page 1019
Radiological Features......Page 1020
Non-Ossifying Fibroma......Page 1022
Radiological Features......Page 1023
Radiological Features......Page 1024
Haemangioma......Page 1025
Radiological Features......Page 1026
Radiological Features......Page 1027
Radiological Features......Page 1028
Fibrous Dysplasia......Page 1030
Radiological Features......Page 1031
Radiological Features......Page 1033
Further Reading......Page 1034
Clinical......Page 1035
Radiological Features......Page 1036
Breast.......Page 1038
Melanoma.......Page 1039
Radiological Investigation of Bone Metastases......Page 1040
Bone Metastases in Children......Page 1041
Primary Malignant Neoplasms of Bone......Page 1042
Clinical Presentation......Page 1043
Imaging Features......Page 1045
Periosteal Chondrosarcoma......Page 1046
Clinical presentation.......Page 1047
Imaging features.......Page 1048
Other varieties of central osteosarcoma.......Page 1049
Periosteal osteosarcoma.......Page 1050
Paget sarcoma.......Page 1051
Post-radiation sarcoma.......Page 1052
Ewing Sarcoma and Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour......Page 1053
Imaging Features......Page 1054
Malignant Vascular Tumours......Page 1055
Adamantinoma......Page 1056
Further Reading......Page 1058
Radiographs......Page 1060
Ultrasound......Page 1061
World Health Organisation Classification of Soft-Tissue Tumours......Page 1062
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1063
Atypical Lipomatous Tumour/ Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma......Page 1064
Nodular Fasciitis......Page 1065
Desmoid-Type Fibromatosis......Page 1067
Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumour......Page 1068
Soft-Tissue Chondromas......Page 1070
Benign Nerve Sheath Tumours......Page 1071
Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours......Page 1072
Traumatic Neuroma......Page 1073
Morton’s Neuroma......Page 1074
Myxoma......Page 1075
Non-Neoplastic Tumour Mimics......Page 1077
Traumatic Lesions......Page 1078
Further Reading......Page 1079
Bone Formation and Turnover......Page 1081
Bone Growth and Development......Page 1082
Radiological Features......Page 1084
Spine in Osteoporosis......Page 1085
Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty......Page 1086
Osteoporotic Fractures......Page 1087
Generalised Osteoporosis......Page 1088
Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis.......Page 1089
Osteogenesis Imperfecta......Page 1091
Type II (Lethal Perinatal)......Page 1092
Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry......Page 1093
Quantitative Ultrasound......Page 1095
Radiogrammetry......Page 1096
Primary Hyperparathyroidism......Page 1097
Subperiosteal erosions.......Page 1098
Osteosclerosis.......Page 1099
Osteoporosis.......Page 1100
Pseudohypoparathyroidism......Page 1101
Vitamin D Deficiency......Page 1102
Rickets.......Page 1103
Osteomalacia.......Page 1104
X-linked hypophosphataemia.......Page 1105
Hypophosphatasia......Page 1106
Osteopetrosis......Page 1107
Hypervitaminosis A......Page 1108
Further Reading......Page 1109
Entheseal disease.......Page 1110
Distribution of Joint Involvement......Page 1111
Osteoarthritis......Page 1112
Radiographic Findings......Page 1113
Hands and Wrists......Page 1114
Advanced Imaging......Page 1115
Radiographic Features......Page 1116
Sero-Negative Arthritis......Page 1118
Spinal disease.......Page 1119
Peripheral joint involvement.......Page 1120
Joints of the hands and feet.......Page 1122
Reactive Arthritis......Page 1123
Chronic tophaceous gout.......Page 1124
Pyrophosphate arthropathy.......Page 1125
Intra-articular hydroxyapatite deposition disease.......Page 1126
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus......Page 1127
Other musculoskeletal manifestations of haemophilia.......Page 1128
Neuropathic Arthropathy......Page 1129
Synovial (Osteo)-Chondromatosis......Page 1130
Lipoma Arborescens......Page 1131
Sarcoid......Page 1132
Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy......Page 1133
Haemochromatosis......Page 1134
Further Reading......Page 1135
Occult-Complete Fractures......Page 1136
Insufficiency, Pathological and Stress Fractures......Page 1138
Growth Plate Injuries......Page 1139
Type III......Page 1140
Anterior Dislocation......Page 1141
Posterior Dislocation......Page 1142
Luxatio Erecta......Page 1143
Lateral epicondyle fractures.......Page 1144
Medial epicondyle fractures.......Page 1145
Adults......Page 1146
Children......Page 1147
Chauffeur Fracture (Hutchinson Fracture)......Page 1148
Scaphoid......Page 1149
Triquetrum......Page 1150
Scapholunate Disassociation......Page 1151
Condylar Fractures......Page 1152
Articular Fractures......Page 1153
Anterior Compression Injuries......Page 1154
Anatomy......Page 1155
Posterior Wall Fractures......Page 1157
Complex Fractures......Page 1159
Pelvic Insufficiency and Stress Fractures......Page 1160
Intertrochanteric and Subtrochanteric Fracture......Page 1161
Atypical Femoral Fractures......Page 1163
Tibial Plateau Fractures......Page 1164
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Avulsion Fracture......Page 1165
Patella Fractures......Page 1166
The Ankle......Page 1167
Supination-Lateral Rotation (Fig. 45.97)......Page 1168
Talar Dome Fractures......Page 1169
Calcaneal Fractures......Page 1170
Foot Injuries......Page 1174
Lisfranc Injury......Page 1175
Further Reading......Page 1176
Further Reading......Page 0
Neural Arch......Page 1217
Facet Joints......Page 1218
Intervertebral Disc—Symphysis......Page 1219
Neural Structures—Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, Dura Mater......Page 1220
Imaging Techniques......Page 1221
Plain Radiography......Page 1222
Myelography......Page 1223
Spinal Angiography......Page 1224
Computed Tomography......Page 1226
Gradient-Echo Imaging......Page 1227
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging......Page 1229
Artefacts......Page 1230
Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsation Artefacts......Page 1231
Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography......Page 1232
Further Reading......Page 1234
Age-Related Changes in the Intervertebral Disc......Page 1235
Degenerative Disc Disease......Page 1236
Annular Tears......Page 1237
Disc Herniation......Page 1238
Vertebral End Plates and Bone Marrow Changes......Page 1240
Osteoarthritis of the Facet Joints......Page 1247
Degenerative Cysts Arising From the Facet Joints......Page 1249
Cysts of the Ligamentum Flavum......Page 1250
Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy......Page 1251
Spinous Process Abnormalities and Associated Ligamentous Changes......Page 1253
Degenerative Spinal Canal Stenosis......Page 1254
Degenerative Scoliosis......Page 1257
Further Reading......Page 1258
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1259
Bone Scintigraphy......Page 1261
Classification of Spinal Tumours......Page 1262
Myxopapillary Ependymoma......Page 1263
Astrocytoma......Page 1264
Ganglioglioma......Page 1266
Cavernous malformation (cavernoma).......Page 1267
Intradural Extramedullary Tumours......Page 1269
Meningioma......Page 1270
Intradural Extramedullary Tumour Mimics......Page 1271
Metastatic Spine Disease......Page 1272
Osteoid Osteoma/Osteoblastoma......Page 1275
Aneurysmal Bone Cyst......Page 1277
Eosinophilic Granuloma (Unifocal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis)......Page 1278
Benign Notochordal Cell Tumours......Page 1279
Chordoma.......Page 1280
Multiple Myeloma and Plasmacytoma......Page 1282
Chondrosarcoma......Page 1283
Ewing Sarcoma......Page 1284
Osteosarcoma......Page 1285
Further Reading......Page 1286
Neuromyelitis Optica......Page 1287
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus......Page 1289
Demyelinating Polyneuropathies......Page 1291
Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula......Page 1293
Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations......Page 1295
Spinal Cord Vasculitis......Page 1296
Spinal Cord Infection Can Be Bacterial, Viral, Fungal or Parasitic in Origin......Page 1297
Intramedullary Lipoma......Page 1299
Diastematomyelia......Page 1300
Chiari Type II Malformations......Page 1303
Anterior Thoracic Meningocele With Ventral Herniation of the Spinal Cord......Page 1305
Intraspinal Arachnoid Cyst......Page 1307
Syringomyelia......Page 1308
Subacute Combined Degeneration of the Spinal Cord......Page 1309
Further Reading......Page 1310
Principles of Spinal Surgery......Page 1311
Early Complications......Page 1313
Late Complications......Page 1317
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome......Page 1320
Further Reading......Page 1323
Conventional Radiography......Page 1324
Computed Tomography......Page 1327
Rotatory Subluxation......Page 1328
Odontoid Fractures......Page 1329
Hyperflexion-Rotation Injury......Page 1330
Classification Systems......Page 1331
Flexion-Compression and Flexion-Distraction Injuries......Page 1333
Burst Fractures......Page 1334
The Rigid Spine......Page 1336
Spinal Cord......Page 1337
Brachial Plexus Injury......Page 1338
Further Reading......Page 1339
Cerebral Cortex, Lobar Anatomy and Deep Grey Matter Structures......Page 1340
Limbic System, Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland......Page 1343
Ventricular System and Subarachnoid Space......Page 1347
Brainstem......Page 1351
Posterior Circulation......Page 1353
Anastomotic Pathways......Page 1354
Intracranial Veins......Page 1356
Introduction......Page 1357
Basic Principles and Scanning Parameters......Page 1358
Image Reconstruction and Display......Page 1359
Image Appearance......Page 1360
Indications, Risks and Benefits......Page 1361
Artefacts and Limitations......Page 1362
Signal generation.......Page 1363
Image appearance and basic applications.......Page 1364
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1365
Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1366
Indications, risks and benefits.......Page 1367
MRI artefacts.......Page 1368
Positron Emission Tomography......Page 1369
Digital Subtraction Angiography......Page 1370
Computed Tomography Angiography......Page 1371
Computed tomography perfusion.......Page 1372
Magnetic Resonance Angiography......Page 1373
Further Reading......Page 1374
Modality and Technique......Page 1376
Calvarial/Skull Fractures......Page 1379
Skull Base Fracture......Page 1381
Vascular Injury......Page 1382
Traumatic Intra-Cranial Haemorrhage......Page 1384
Subdural Haemorrhage......Page 1387
Traumatic Subarachnoid Haemorrhage......Page 1392
Diffuse Axonal Injury......Page 1393
Chronic Imaging Findings of Traumatic Parenchymal Injury......Page 1395
Secondary Brain Injury......Page 1396
Further Reading......Page 1399
Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1400
Magnetic Resonance Perfusion-Weighted Imaging......Page 1401
Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Imaging......Page 1402
Positron-Emission Tomography......Page 1403
Gliomas......Page 1404
Oligodendroglioma (IDHmut With 1p19q Codeletion)......Page 1406
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-Mutant Astrocytoma (IDHmut 1p19q Intact)......Page 1407
Midline Glioma, Histone H3 K27M-Mutant......Page 1408
The Role of Advanced Physiological Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Glial Tumours......Page 1409
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumour......Page 1412
Lymphoma......Page 1413
Metastases......Page 1415
Ependymoma......Page 1416
Choroid Plexus Tumours......Page 1417
Meningioma......Page 1418
Meningiomas......Page 1419
Cranial Nerve Sheath Tumours......Page 1420
Skull Base Tumours......Page 1421
Pineal Region Tumours......Page 1422
Pituitary Adenomas......Page 1424
Craniopharyngiomas......Page 1425
Other Sellar Region Tumours......Page 1426
Further Reading......Page 1428
The Penumbra Model......Page 1430
Stroke Classification......Page 1431
Imaging Strategies and Goals in Acute Stroke......Page 1432
Hyperacute Infarct Imaging Signs on Computed Tomography......Page 1433
Perfusion imaging.......Page 1436
Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Stroke......Page 1437
Angiographic imaging.......Page 1440
Additional advanced imaging techniques.......Page 1441
Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging?......Page 1442
Subacute and Chronic Infarct Imaging Signs......Page 1444
Imaging Options for Carotid Stenosis......Page 1447
Imaging Signs......Page 1448
Arterial Dissection......Page 1449
Ischaemic Microangiopathy......Page 1450
Vasculitis......Page 1452
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis......Page 1453
Non-Traumatic Intracranial Haemorrhage......Page 1454
Subarachnoid Haemorrhage......Page 1455
Initial Investigation of Acute Subarachnoid Haemorrhage......Page 1456
Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage......Page 1459
Imaging of Incidental Intracranial Aneurysms......Page 1460
Appearance on Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1462
Angiography in Intracerebral Haemorrhage......Page 1464
Subdural and Extradural Haemorrhage......Page 1465
Further Reading......Page 1469
Cerebritis and Brain Abscess......Page 1470
Ventriculitis......Page 1471
Tuberculosis......Page 1472
Neurosyphilis......Page 1473
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis......Page 1475
Other Viral Encephalitides......Page 1476
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalopathy......Page 1477
Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome......Page 1479
Cysticercosis......Page 1481
Echinococcus (Hydatid Disease)......Page 1483
Malaria......Page 1484
Further Reading......Page 1486
Indications for Imaging......Page 1487
Alheimer Disease......Page 1488
Vascular Dementia......Page 1489
Systemic Causes of Vascular Dementia......Page 1490
Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis......Page 1491
Introduction and Clinical Overview......Page 1492
Indications for Imaging......Page 1493
Epilepsy—Infectious Aetiology......Page 1494
Epilepsy—Structural Brain Alterations— Genetic Syndromes......Page 1495
Neoplasms......Page 1496
Epilepsy—Infectious Aetiology......Page 1497
Further Reading......Page 1498
Multiple Sclerosis......Page 1499
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1500
Baló Concentric Sclerosis......Page 1508
Pseudotumoural Lesions......Page 1509
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders......Page 1511
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis......Page 1513
Acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.......Page 1518
Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System......Page 1519
Neurosarcoidosis......Page 1522
Behçet Disease......Page 1523
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus......Page 1524
Postradiotherapy Leukoencephalopathy......Page 1525
Radionecrosis......Page 1526
Stroke-Like Migraine Attacks After Radiation Therapy Syndrome......Page 1527
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome......Page 1528
Brain Gadolinium Deposition......Page 1531
Cocaine......Page 1533
Diethylene Glycol......Page 1535
Organic Solvent Poisoning......Page 1536
Krabbe Disease......Page 1538
Wernicke Encephalopathy......Page 1540
Osmotic Demyelination......Page 1542
Hepatic Encephalopathy......Page 1543
Acknowledgements......Page 1545
Further Reading......Page 1550
The Globe......Page 1551
Vascular and Nervous Supply of the Orbit......Page 1552
Persistent Hypertrophic Primary Vitreous......Page 1553
Coloboma......Page 1554
Thyroid Orbitopathy......Page 1555
Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation......Page 1556
Systemic Inflammatory Diseases With Orbital Involvement......Page 1557
Benign Lacrimal Fossa Masses......Page 1558
Nerve Sheath Tumour......Page 1563
Cavernous Haemangioma......Page 1564
Arteriovenous Malformations......Page 1567
Lymphoproliferative Malignancy......Page 1568
Retinoblastoma......Page 1571
Rhabdomyosarcoma......Page 1572
Orbital Trauma......Page 1573
Anatomy......Page 1576
Congenital......Page 1577
Inflammatory/Demyelinating Lesions......Page 1578
Pathologies of the Posterior Visual Pathway (Lateral Geniculate Nucleus, Optic Radiation and Visual Cortex)......Page 1582
Central Gaze Palsies......Page 1584
Further Reading......Page 1586
Keratosis Obturans.......Page 1588
Necrotising Otitis Externa.......Page 1589
Neoplasia of the Auricle and External Auditory Canal.......Page 1590
Cholesteatoma.......Page 1591
Retrofenestral or pericochlear.......Page 1593
Ossicular disruption.......Page 1594
Anatomy and Physiology......Page 1595
Trauma.......Page 1596
Congenital malformations.......Page 1597
Glomus tumours (paragangliomas).......Page 1598
Anatomy and Physiology......Page 1599
Rhinosinusitis......Page 1601
Mucocoeles......Page 1602
Epistaxis......Page 1603
Juvenile Angiofibroma......Page 1604
Sinonasal Malignancy......Page 1605
Anatomy......Page 1606
Anatomy......Page 1607
Sialadenitis......Page 1608
Fractures of the Facial Skeleton......Page 1609
Orbital Blow-Out Fractures......Page 1611
Developmental Abnormalities......Page 1612
Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction......Page 1613
Arthritides......Page 1614
Injury......Page 1615
Pathology.......Page 1616
Anatomy.......Page 1617
Anatomy.......Page 1618
Radiology and pathology.......Page 1619
Anatomy......Page 1620
Radiology and Pathology......Page 1621
Anatomy......Page 1622
Nuclear medicine.......Page 1623
Parathyroid Pathology......Page 1624
Acknowledgements......Page 1626
Further Reading......Page 1627
Chapter Outline......Page 1628
Computed Tomography......Page 1629
Confirmation of Diagnosis......Page 1630
Staging Systems......Page 1631
Prostate Cancer......Page 1632
Assessment of Treatment Response......Page 1633
Objective Response Assessment......Page 1634
Treatment Toxicity......Page 1635
Lung......Page 1636
Hepatic Toxicity......Page 1637
Surveillance of Asymptomatic Patients......Page 1638
Further Reading......Page 1639
Standard Projections......Page 1641
Additional Projections......Page 1642
Breast Compression......Page 1643
Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Breast Cancer Screening......Page 1644
Contrast Enhanced Spectral Mammography......Page 1645
Ultrasound......Page 1646
Normal Breast Anatomy......Page 1647
Papilloma......Page 1648
Classification of Invasive Breast Cancer......Page 1649
Mammography.......Page 1650
Ultrasound.......Page 1651
The Differential Diagnosis of Malignancy......Page 1652
Benign Microcalcifications......Page 1653
Malignant Microcalcifications......Page 1654
Lesion Characterisation......Page 1656
Controversies Surrounding the Use of Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1657
Interventional Breast Radiology......Page 1659
Guidance Methods for Breast Needle Biopsy......Page 1660
Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Biopsy......Page 1661
Introduction......Page 1662
Which Age Groups Should Be Screened?......Page 1663
Conclusion......Page 1664
Further Reading......Page 1665
Genetic Factors......Page 1666
Prognosis and Treatment......Page 1667
Prognosis and Treatment......Page 1669
Choice of Imaging Technique......Page 1670
Abdomen and Pelvis......Page 1671
Extranodal Disease in Lymphoma......Page 1672
Primary Pulmonary Lymphoma......Page 1674
Liver......Page 1675
Gastrointestinal Tract......Page 1676
Small Bowel......Page 1677
Kidneys......Page 1678
Testis......Page 1679
Bone Marrow......Page 1680
Primary......Page 1681
Waldeyer’s Ring......Page 1682
Salivary Glands......Page 1683
Lymphomas Associated With HIV (AIDS-Related Lymphomas)......Page 1684
Monitoring Response to Therapy......Page 1685
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1686
Response Criteria......Page 1687
FDG-PET/CT in Response Assessment......Page 1688
Further Reading......Page 1689
Clinical Features......Page 1690
Imaging Features......Page 1691
Imaging Features......Page 1692
Lymphoma......Page 1693
Imaging Features......Page 1694
Imaging Features......Page 1696
Plasma Cell Dyscrasias......Page 1697
Imaging Features......Page 1698
Clinical Features......Page 1699
Imaging Features......Page 1700
Clinical Features......Page 1701
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis......Page 1702
Imaging Features......Page 1704
Imaging Findings......Page 1707
Further Reading......Page 1709
The Haemoglobinopathies......Page 1711
Thalassaemia......Page 1712
Iron chelation therapy.......Page 1714
Sickle Cell Disease......Page 1715
Clinical Features......Page 1716
Bone infarction.......Page 1717
Osteomyelitis.......Page 1718
Radiological Features......Page 1720
Further Reading......Page 1723
Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy......Page 1724
Brachytherapy......Page 1725
Particle Therapy......Page 1727
Target Volume Definition......Page 1728
Computed Tomography Simulation......Page 1729
Delivery and Verification......Page 1730
Four-Dimensional Imaging......Page 1732
Adaptive Radiotherapy......Page 1734
Inclusion of Biological Information to the Treatment Process......Page 1735
Further Reading......Page 1737
Dynamic Contrast Enhanced- Computed Tomography......Page 1739
Contrast Agent Kinetics......Page 1741
Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1743
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging......Page 1744
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy......Page 1745
Non-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Tracers......Page 1748
Optical Imaging......Page 1750
Conclusion: Role of Functional and Molecular Imaging in Oncology......Page 1751
Further Reading......Page 1752
Fluoroscopy......Page 1753
320-Row Multidetector Computed Tomography......Page 1754
Radiation Dose Considerations......Page 1755
Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography......Page 1756
Motion Artefact Reduction......Page 1757
Imaging Planes......Page 1758
Further Reading......Page 1759
Idiopathic Respiratory Distress Syndrome......Page 1760
Transient Tachypnoea of the Newborn......Page 1763
Meconium Aspiration Syndrome......Page 1764
Neonatal Pneumonia......Page 1765
Lines and Tubes......Page 1766
The Chest Radiograph......Page 1767
Cardiac or Respiratory?......Page 1768
Bacterial Versus Viral......Page 1769
Tuberculosis......Page 1770
Mycoplasma pneumoniae......Page 1771
Inhaled Foreign Bodies......Page 1773
Congenital Thoracic Cysts......Page 1774
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformations......Page 1776
Congenital Lobar Overinflation......Page 1777
Lung Agenesis–Hypoplasia Complex......Page 1778
Mediastinal Masses......Page 1779
Middle mediastinum.......Page 1780
Pulmonary and Endobronchial Tumours......Page 1781
Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii) pneumonia.......Page 1782
Lymphoproliferative disease and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia.......Page 1783
Lung ultrasound......Page 1784
Lung MRI......Page 1785
Further Reading......Page 1786
Omphalocele......Page 1787
Oesophageal Atresia and Tracheo-Oesophageal Fistula......Page 1788
Post-surgery imaging.......Page 1789
The Vomiting Neonate......Page 1790
Small Bowel Malrotation and Volvulus......Page 1791
Duodenal Atresia and Stenosis......Page 1793
Necrotising Enterocolitis......Page 1794
Megacystis–Microcolon–Intestinal Hypoperistalsis (Berdon) Syndrome......Page 1796
Functional Immaturity of the Colon and Meconium Plug Syndrome......Page 1797
Meconium Ileus......Page 1798
Distal Ileal Atresia......Page 1799
Anorectal and Cloacal Malformations......Page 1800
Mesenteric Lymphadenitis......Page 1801
Magnetic resonance imaging.......Page 1802
Computed tomography.......Page 1803
Intussusception......Page 1804
Intestinal Motility Disorders......Page 1806
Henoch–Schönlein Purpura......Page 1807
Enteric Duplication Cysts......Page 1808
Non-Bilious Vomiting......Page 1809
Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis......Page 1810
Meckel Diverticulum......Page 1812
Gastrointestinal Malignancies......Page 1814
Abdominal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis......Page 1815
Abdominal Trauma......Page 1816
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1817
Imaging Anatomy......Page 1818
Fibrosis......Page 1819
Preduodenal Portal Vein......Page 1820
Transplant......Page 1821
Biliary Atresia (Fig. 71.50)......Page 1822
Choledochal Malformation (Choledochal Cyst; Fig. 71.51)......Page 1823
Other......Page 1824
Congenital Hyperinsulinism......Page 1825
Lateralisation Disorders (Fig. 71.59)......Page 1826
Neoplasia......Page 1827
Further Reading......Page 1828
Plain Radiography......Page 1830
Standard Technique......Page 1831
Cystography......Page 1832
Indications.......Page 1833
Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography......Page 1834
Dynamic Renography......Page 1835
Technique.......Page 1836
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1837
Angiography......Page 1838
Abnormalities With Renal Fusion......Page 1839
Imaging......Page 1840
Imaging......Page 1842
Functional Bladder Disturbance and Neurogenic Bladder......Page 1843
Posterior Urethral Valves......Page 1844
Anterior Urethral Abnormalities......Page 1845
Undescended Testis......Page 1846
Bilateral Renal Pelvic Dilatation......Page 1847
Unilateral Renal Pelvic Dilatation......Page 1848
Urinary Tract Infection and Vesicoureteric Reflux......Page 1849
Imaging......Page 1850
Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis......Page 1851
Cystic Dysplasia......Page 1853
Localised Cystic Disease of the Kidney......Page 1854
Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease......Page 1855
Renal Calculi......Page 1857
Nephroblastomatosis......Page 1859
Wilms Tumour......Page 1860
Renal Cell Carcinoma......Page 1861
Scrotal Masses......Page 1862
Presacral Masses......Page 1863
Hypertension......Page 1864
Renal Transplantation......Page 1867
Post-Transplantation......Page 1868
Further Reading......Page 1869
Diagnosis......Page 1870
Imaging for Complications......Page 1894
Genetic Counselling......Page 1895
Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)......Page 1896
Idiopathic Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head (Perthes Disease)......Page 1897
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis......Page 1899
Tibia Vara and Tibial Bowing......Page 1900
Madelung Deformity......Page 1901
Sprengel Deformity (Congenital Elevation of the Scapula)......Page 1902
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis......Page 1903
Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis......Page 1906
Haemophilia......Page 1908
Rickets......Page 1909
Vitamin D-Dependent Rickets......Page 1910
Lead Poisoning......Page 1911
Hypoparathyroidism......Page 1912
Hypothyroidism......Page 1913
Thalassaemia......Page 1914
Infective Arthritis......Page 1915
Infection of the Spine (Discitis and Osteomyelitis)......Page 1916
Further Reading......Page 1917
Physeal Injuries......Page 1919
Shoulder/Humerus......Page 1920
Elbow......Page 1921
Forearm/Wrist/Hand......Page 1927
Pelvis......Page 1928
Knee......Page 1929
Foot......Page 1931
Cervical Spinal Injuries......Page 1932
Clinical Presentation and the Role of the Radiologist......Page 1933
Injury Patterns......Page 1934
General Imaging Strategies......Page 1935
Fracture Patterns in Accidental Versus Nonaccidental Injury......Page 1936
Rib Fractures......Page 1937
Long Bone Fractures......Page 1938
Unusual Fractures......Page 1939
Fracture Healing......Page 1940
Birth Trauma......Page 1941
Brain Injuries......Page 1942
Extra-Axial Haemorrhages......Page 1943
Further Reading......Page 1950
The Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumours......Page 1952
Rare Malignant Bone Tumours in Children......Page 1954
Tumours of Fibrous Tissue Origin......Page 1955
Osteochondroma (Exostosis)......Page 1956
Locally Aggressive Tumours......Page 1957
Aneurysmal Bone Cyst......Page 1958
Neuroblastoma......Page 1960
Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 1962
Radionuclide Radiology......Page 1963
Neuroblastoma Staging......Page 1964
Further Reading......Page 1967
Computed Tomography Angiography in Clinical Practice......Page 2030
Computed Tomography Angiography or Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Safety, Preference and Ease of Use......Page 2031
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Assessment for Suitability for Endovascular Repair and Postintervention Follow-Up......Page 2032
Assessing the Aorta for Other Pathological Conditions......Page 2033
Acute Mesenteric Ischaemia......Page 2035
Computed Tomography Angiography for Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding......Page 2036
Other Pulmonary Conditions......Page 2037
Diagnosis of Stroke: Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance......Page 2038
Elucidating the Source of Embolic Stroke......Page 2039
Peripheral Vascular Disease......Page 2041
Magnetic Resonance Angiography......Page 2043
Arteriovenous Malformations......Page 2044
Further Reading......Page 2045
Arterial Puncture......Page 2046
Sheaths......Page 2047
Closure Devices......Page 2048
False Aneurysm......Page 2049
Further Reading......Page 2050
Stent-Grafts and Basic Principles of Stent-Grafting......Page 2051
Anatomical Considerations......Page 2057
Outcomes of Endovascular Repair and Comparison With Surgery......Page 2059
Acute Aortic Syndrome......Page 2060
Complicated Type B Dissection......Page 2061
Chronic Dissection and Aneurysmal Development......Page 2062
Aortic Coarctation......Page 2063
Outcomes of Endovascular Repair and Comparison With Surgery for Elective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair......Page 2066
Thoraco-Abdominal Aneurysms......Page 2067
Surveillance Imaging and Complications......Page 2070
Graft Infection (See Fig. 79.33)......Page 2071
Summary and Conclusion......Page 2073
Further Reading......Page 2074
Embolisation......Page 2075
Thrombolysis......Page 2077
Diagnosis......Page 2078
Occlusions.......Page 2079
Popliteal Artery......Page 2081
Treatment of Acute Lower Limb Ischaemia......Page 2082
Gastrointestinal System......Page 2083
Mesenteric Haemorrhage......Page 2084
Visceral Artery Aneurysms......Page 2086
Occlusive Mesenteric Vascular Disease......Page 2088
Bronchial Artery Embolisation......Page 2089
Lower Extremity Venous System......Page 2090
Complications of Endovascular Procedures......Page 2091
Further Reading......Page 2093
Preprocedural Assessment......Page 2094
Semiautomatic, For Example Temno, SuperCore (Fig. 81.1)......Page 2095
Coaxial Technique......Page 2096
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 2097
Improving Needle Tip Visualisation in Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy......Page 2098
The Case for Tumour Ablation......Page 2099
Microwave Ablation......Page 2100
Preprocedural Planning......Page 2101
Postprocedural Imaging......Page 2102
Understanding and Modifying Tumour Pathophysiology......Page 2103
Lung Tumour Ablation......Page 2105
Bone Tumour Ablation......Page 2106
Further Reading......Page 2108
Indications and Contraindications......Page 2109
Management of Anticoagulant Medication Prior to Percutaneous Drainage......Page 2110
Imaging Guidance......Page 2111
Patient Preparation and Care......Page 2113
Catheter Insertion......Page 2114
Catheter Management......Page 2115
Chest......Page 2116
Gallbladder......Page 2117
Spleen......Page 2118
Peritoneum......Page 2119
Deep Pelvic Collections......Page 2122
Organ Traversal......Page 2124
Complications......Page 2125
Conclusion......Page 2126
Further Reading......Page 2127
Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography......Page 2128
Benign Strictures......Page 2129
Vascular Interventional Techniques in the Liver......Page 2132
Performing the Procedure......Page 2133
Background......Page 2134
Performing the Procedure: Planning......Page 2135
Hepatic Arterial Embolisation for Haemorrhage......Page 2136
Performing the Procedure......Page 2138
Background......Page 2139
Background......Page 2140
Diagnosis......Page 2141
Further Reading......Page 2142
Renal revascularisation trials.......Page 2143
Renal artery angioplasty.......Page 2144
Takayasu arteritis.......Page 2145
Results......Page 2146
Malignant......Page 2147
Renal Arteriovenous Malformation......Page 2148
Ureter......Page 2149
Treatment Options......Page 2150
Imaging......Page 2151
Safety and Efficacy......Page 2152
Management of abnormal placentation.......Page 2153
Pelvic Congestion Syndrome......Page 2155
Treatment......Page 2156
Further Reading......Page 2160
Other Anatomical Factors Important for Renal Access......Page 2161
Access Needle......Page 2162
Percutaneous Nephrostomy (PCN)......Page 2163
Patient Preparation and Procedure......Page 2164
Transplant Kidney......Page 2165
Complications of Percutaneous Nephrostomy (PCN) and Management......Page 2168
Tract Planning......Page 2169
Tract Dilatation......Page 2170
Complications of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy and Management......Page 2171
Technique of Antegrade Stenting......Page 2172
Insertion of a Metal Ureteric Stent......Page 2173
Tortuous Ureter......Page 2174
Monitoring Ureteric Stents......Page 2175
Suprapubic Bladder Catherisation......Page 2176
Interventional Procedures in the Prostate Gland and Seminal Vesicles......Page 2178
Insertion of Prostate Fiducials and Absorbable Hydrogel Spacer......Page 2179
Further Reading......Page 2180
General Patient and Interventional Suite Preparation......Page 2181
Tunnelled Central Venous Catheter: Hickman Line......Page 2182
Tunnelled Central Venous Catheter: Totally Implantable Vascular Access Device......Page 2183
Translumbar Dialysis Catheter Insertion......Page 2184
Complications and Their Management......Page 2185
Inadvertent Arterial Puncture......Page 2186
Air Embolism......Page 2187
Laceration of Central Veins......Page 2188
Catheter Kinks/Fractures......Page 2189
Diagnostic Evaluation......Page 2190
Further Reading......Page 2191
Bone Biopsy Techniques......Page 2192
Performing the Procedure......Page 2194
Technique......Page 2195
Complications......Page 2197
Pulsed Radiofrequency Ablation......Page 2199
Facet Joint Syndrome......Page 2201
Cervical Spine Procedures......Page 2202
Technique......Page 2205
Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation......Page 2206
Osteoplasty and Osteosynthesis......Page 2208
Ablation of Bone Tumours......Page 2211
Complications......Page 2213
Osteoid Osteomas......Page 2214
Neuromodulation and Neurostimulation......Page 2215
Further Reading......Page 2218


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